What is 4 steps RumenYeast®?

The term Four Steps RumenYeast® (4SRY) refers to the four technological processes that ICC applies to the yeast cream to produce RumenYeast® (figure below). These four steps will provide functionality to the product (double modulation) and industrial efficiency to manufacturing, delivering value to all links in the chain, from ethanol producers to meat and milk producers. In the yeast cream obtained from fermented cane juice, the yeast cells are still alive.

Step 1, preservation, aims to maintain the high viability of the yeast cells, avoiding the quality losses (e.g., biogenic amines) that could occur in an uncontrolled death (degradation) process of the cream cells. Additionally, in this step, the yeast goes through a moderate washing process, preserving with the yeast cells the non-sugar nutrients from the clarified and fermented sugarcane juice, i.e., nutrients originating directly from the clarified sugarcane juice or from the products of yeast metabolism. Together with nutrients from the cytoplasm and cell nucleus, these nutrients will constitute the yeast metabolites.

Step 2, stabilization, the cells are subjected to a fermentative environment with specific physicochemical parameters, leading to a series of modifications in the yeast’s characteristics: increased protein content, enzymatic autolysis of the cell wall etc. At this step, the cell wall becomes porous, which promotes controlled cell death. Additionally, porosity exposes nutrients from the cell content, which will be essential to rumen modulation. In addition, the porosity also increases the specific surface area of the cell wall (MOS and β-glucans), increasing their capacity for intestinal modulation.

Step 3, concentration, the already autolyzed yeast goes through a partial increase in concentration, i.e., part of the water is evaporated, increasing the dry matter content in the product. This partial concentration reduces the energy requirement in the final drying, improving efficiency in the process. During this step, there is also the recovery of a small fraction of alcohol that is still present in the medium. This increases the amount of alcohol sold per ton of cane crushed, also adding value to the partner industry.

Step 4, there is the final drying, in Spray Dryer technology, at a temperature around 170 °C. This drying technology gives the process better energy efficiency and better granulometric characteristics, among other things, to the product. Step 4 is completed with the transport of the dried product in a closed system to the filling plant.

Of these four processes, three give RumenYeast® its PSC identity, preserved, stabilized, and concentrated yeast.

PSC yeast > ICC technological process unique and differentiated in 4 Steps: 4SRY

PSC yeast > ICC technological process unique and differentiated in 4 Steps: 4SRY

Liquid Culture Medium (Soluble) + Preserved Fermentation Metabolites(cell viability > 85%)

Autolysis and Enzymatic Digestion Tank
(temp. 40°C to 55°C, pH 4.5 to 5.5, and 14% dry matter)

Vacuum Tubes
(temp. 50°C to 60°C and 30% dry matter)

(Spray Dryer at 160°C to 180 °C for 30 s)

What is double modulation?

The term “double modulation” refers to the action of the RumenYeast® components in the rumen and intestine. The action in these two organs will be important to keep the animals healthier and more productive and reduce production costs (integrative benefits or final benefits).

Although both help lead us to the same end goal (+ performance and/or - cost), modulation in the rumen and intestine happens differently and results in different partial or primary benefits.

In the rumen, RumenYeast® modifies the proportions and metabolism of the different microbial communities, promoting the following primary benefits: increased ruminal digestion of carbohydrates, especially fiber; increased microbial growth, the main source of amino acids for ruminants; increased production of volatile fatty acids, the main source of energy for ruminants; and reduced lactate levels, reducing the risk of subclinical acidosis.*

RumenYeast® binds (MOS) pathogenic microorganisms, favoring the reduction of the growth of these microorganisms in the intestine and, therefore, improving intestinal health/function. In turn, β-glucans 1-3 and 1-6 will adsorb mycotoxins, enhancing the role of MOS in gut health (primary benefit). Additionally, β-glucans are recognized by immune system cells residing in the intestinal mucosa, macrophages, and dendritic cells, triggering a cascade of reactions that strengthen the animal’s immune response: increased phagocytic power (ability to fight invading pathogens); increased levels of immunoglobulins etc. These physiological changes will support more primary benefits, such as increased vaccine effectiveness and reduced diarrhea, respiratory problems, morbidity, and mortality.*

In general, we can say that rumen modulation will primarily promote improved digestion and rumen health, while intestinal modulation will support improvements in gut health and functionality and also in the animal’s overall health status (immunomodulation). Depending on the need/challenge of each farm, double modulation will promote some or several of the primary benefits mentioned. These primary benefits will sustain higher milk and meat production, or keep production at similar levels, but reduce costs for feed ingredient, drugs, and labor.

*Proprietary data and literature.

How important is product purity?

First, we need to define what we call purity. We use “purity” to emphasize that RumenYeast® has no vehicles and is basically pure yeast. When we observe the product under a light microscope, we will basically see the cell wall (translucent spheres), because the metabolites are macromolecules and simple compounds that are not visible under these circumstances.

How can we prove this purity? We can count the number of cells (translucent walls/spheres) per gram of product. The amount of 20 billion cells per gram can only be seen in similar products or in good quality live yeast (probiotics).

What advantage can this purity/high count bring? The more yeast the animal ingests, the more metabolites, MOS, and β-glucans the animals will “absorb”. In turn, by logic, there is a relationship between the amount ingested of these components and the effectiveness of their action. For example, if MOS intake is higher, more pathogenic bacteria can be adsorbed; if β-glucans intake is higher, more mycotoxins can be adsorbed and more macrophages activated; if metabolite intake is higher, more microbial groups can be fed.

Attention: together with the purity (cell count per gram), we must consider the recommended dose of the product. From the purity and the dose, we can calculate the total intake of cells and, therefore, of active ingredients.

How do live yeast (probiotic) and RumenYeast® act in the animal?

When we talk about live yeast (probiotics), the most accepted modes of action by the scientific community are related to the metabolic action of these yeasts in the rumen. Noteworthy is the ability to reduce the oxygen concentration in the rumen (favoring the growth of fibrolytic bacteria) and the release into the rumen liquid of growth factors for other important microbial groups, such as lactic acid consuming bacteria. In this regard, it has been demonstrated, for example, that yeasts that can stay alive longer in the rumen play a better probiotic role.

RumenYeast®, on the other hand, has no viable cells. Therefore, its action is due to the action of its active ingredients (components) MOS, β-glucans, and metabolites.

But do live yeasts not have these same components (active ingredients)? In part, yes, but in general, the concentration of MOS and β-glucans will be lower in probiotics. The physical-chemical characteristics will also be distinct, probiotics usually come from the baking industry, which increases cell wall digestibility and potentially reduces the effects against pathogens and mycotoxins. In addition to differentiated physicalchemical characteristics, the higher concentration of MOS and β-glucans associated with the higher dose (g/animal/day) recommended for RumenYeast® promotes a higher daily intake of MOS and β-glucans in animals receiving RumenYeast® than in animals receiving probiotics. This helps us to explain the good results we have had in improving health status in animals receiving RumenYeast® (immunomodulation). Consequently: reduction of diarrhea, respiratory problems, and mastitis. However, we should not say that live yeast has no action on animal health, as there is evidence in the literature that live yeast can have this action. However, due to the above, high intake of MOS and β-glucans of desirable characteristics, we can certainly say that RumenYeast® will act more effectively in immunomodulating and improving animal health status than probiotics.

Can RumenYeast® be incorporated into pelleted feed?

Yes, RumenYeast® can be pelleted without losing effectiveness. In addition, in the RumenYeast® production process, it is subjected to temperatures up to 3X higher than the average pelleting temperatures.

This is a competitive advantage of RumenYeast®, because many live yeasts are not resistant to pelleting.